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Hindustani Classical Music-A Comprehensive Guide on Time Theory of Ragas

6th May, 2022

Every raga has a particular time of singing, and some have specific seasons. For instance, Raga Megh is sung during the monsoon season, and Raga Hindol is sung in the spring season due to its spring season.

The 24 hours of a day are divided into two parts, from 12 pm to 12 am, it is called Poorvang, and from 12 am to 12 pm, it is called Uttrang. In this blog, you will learn about the time theory of ragas in Hindustani classical music.

1 Song Sung in Different Raags!

Time Theory of Ragas

The time theory of ragas can be explained under the following categories:

1. Adhvdarshaq Swara

The Madhya or the ma is called Adhvadarshaq Swara in our music. Madhyam is an important Swara in the saptak as it decides the time of the raga. The ragas that are sung with a teevra madhyam are sung mostly in the Poorvang, and ragas that have shudh Madhaym are sung in the Uttrang.

You can apply this theory to any raga like the raga Bhairav sung with a shuddha madhyam; its singing time is ideally in the Uttrang (12 am to 12 pm). The singing time is actually in the 1st prahar of the day, around 4 am.

Similarly, Raga Yaman is sung with a teevra madhyam that has its ideal time in the ePoorvang (12 pm to 12 am) that shows the transition from night to evening. Other contradictory ragas do not follow this rule, such as Raga Basant.

2. Vadi-Samvadi Swara

Vadi is one of the main swara of the raga, and Samvadi is another important swara of the raga. If the vadi swara of the raga falls in the Poorvang, the Samvadi swara of the raga will fall in the Uttrang.

A raga with its vadi swara in the uttrang is sung in that specific period. From this, you will understand the Hindustani classical music. Vadi Poorvang is sung during the Poorvang period, and that is between 12 pm to 12 am.

3. Poorvang and Uttang Swara

This specific raga has a prominent or a string Poorvang sung in the Poorvang time, and a raga with a strong uttrang is sung in the uttrang time. For instance, Darbari and Bhimpalasi have a strong Poorvang and are sung during that period. Bhairav and Bhairavi also have string uttrang and are sung during that time.

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4. Re, Dha, Komal/ Shudh Swarea/ Ga Ni Komal Swara

  • Ra and Dha Komal
    Ragas that have Komal Re and Dha are called Sandhiprakash raga; they are generally sung in the early morning at around 4 am or 7 am, which is the time of sunrise. As the time of the sun rising changes as per the season, the time of those ragas also changes with them.
    The ragas that fall under such category are Purvi, Bhairvai and Marva, thaat Bhariav, Raga Lalit, Raga Bhairav, Raaga Shree, Raga Lalit, Raga Jogiya, Raga Ramkali, Raga Poorvi and many more.
  • Re and Dha Shuddh
    Ragas that have Shuddh Re and Dha are considered to be sung after the categories of ragas that have Re Komal and Ga Shuddh ragas. The ragas that can be listed under this category are Raaga Bilawal, Raga Bhoopali, Raga Desh, Raga Bihag, Raga Kedar, Raga Khammaj, Raga Kedar and many others.
    The exact time of singing these ragas is about 7 to 10 in the morning and evening. Some scholars believe that the time is about 7-12 and not the former, but it can be difficult to tell the exact time of these ragas.
  • Ga and Ni Komal
    Ragas that have Komal Ga and Ni are sung after all the other categories of the ragas. As per the theory of Hindustani classical music, these types of ragas are known to be sung from 10-4 in the morning and also at night, but due to the contract actions in Re, the timings of the Dha Shuddh category of the raga are known to be from 12-4 in the afternoon and in the night.

But as most people sing from 10-4, it is known to be sung only in the 10-4 slot. The ragas that fall under this category are Todi, Bharira, Kafi and Asavari. In every one of the categories mentioned above, a raga can be found that is sung at a specific time, but they do not have the same characteristics as other songs sung at that time. Thus, these are the different time theories of ragas, and these ragas fall into different categories.

Get in touch with us at Kafqa Academy

Now that you know the different time theories of ragas, you can contact a reputable school to learn Hindustani classical music. You can contact us at Kafqa academy; we can provide you with singing classes to learn Hindustani classical music. The trainers here can provide you with all the help you want; they also offer different singing courses under different types of music.

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